Thursday, September 18, 2008

Drunken chicken

Drunken chicken is the name given to several different ways of preparing chicken using alcoholic beverages.


In Chinese cuisine there are many different ways of cooking drunken chicken.

* One nationally known and very popular version, Shaoxing, originated in the Zhejiang province of eastern China. Shaoxing drunk chicken is cooked and marinated exclusively in historic Shaoxing wine to create a deep taste.
* In another version of the dish, the whole chicken is first then chopped up into pieces appropriately sized for picking up by chopsticks. The steamed meat, along with its juice, is cooked with scallions, ginger and salt. After the chicken is cooked it is marinated in , sherry or hard liquor, like whiskey, overnight in the refrigerator. The chicken is served chilled, often as an appetizer. Besides the liquor-flavored meat, another feature of the dish is the liquor-flavored gelatin that results from the chilled mixture of the alcohol and the cooking juices.

North America

A western version is made by standing a prepared chicken upright on a partially filled can of beer and cooking it slowly in a barbecue or oven. The can goes into the opening of the chicken so that the beer evaporates and permeates the cooking chicken. It received its name due to way the chicken wobbles once the beer has evaporated and due to the fact the chicken is flavored with evaporated beer. The wobbling and falling usually indicates the chicken is done.

Another related recipe is bourbon chicken, which is prepared from bourbon whiskey.

Latin America

The Argentine and Mexican versions of this dish are called ''pollo borracho'', and usually include green and black olives and cinnamon.

Drunken shrimp

Drunken shrimp is a popular dish in portions of China based on fresh-water shrimp that are eaten alive, but stunned in a strong liquor—baijiu—to make consumption easier. Different parts of China have slightly different recipes for it, but the net effect remains the same.

A typical recipe from Sichuan might be:
# Crush 15 roasted together with 100g of scallion whites, mixing both with ?tsp. salt, 2tsp. soy sauce, 2tsp. sesame oil, 1tbsp. chicken stock, ?tsp. MSG. Set aside as dipping sauce.
# Wash 300g live freshwater shrimp to remove all sand. Optionally cut off antennae and feet and wash again. Drain, place in bowl and set aside.
# Shortly before serving, pour 2tsp. strong baijiu over the shrimps and add 25g chopped scallions. Cover the bowl with a dish, invert it and weight it so the shrimp cannot escape.
# To serve, remove bowl, take live shrimp, dip in dipping sauce and consume.

East Meets West (TV Series)

East Meets West is a popular cooking show on the Food Network hosted by the renowned Chinese American chef Ming Tsai. During the half-hour show, Tsai cooked Asian-European fusion cuisine. ''East Meets West'' aired from 1998 to 2003. In 1999, Tsai won the Daytime Emmy award in the category Outstanding Service Show Host for the show.

Filipino Chinese cuisine

There are many types of foods in the Philippines because of inhabitants residing in the country. Most of the Filipino Chinese are ones who have businesses in Chinese food and service restaurants. Restaurants are frequently seen as places where there is a great amount of Chinese Filipino living in that area or somewhere nearby. The food is usually Cantonese where the chefs are from Hong Kong. Typically the Chinese name of a particular food is given a Filipino name or close equivalent in name to simplify pronunciation.


When restaurants were established in the 19th century, food became a staple of the pansiterias, with the food given names. The "comida China" includes arroz caldo , and morisqueta tostada . When the Spaniards came, the food influences they brought were from both Spain and Mexico, as it was through the vice-royalty of Mexico that the Philippines were governed.

Filipino foods also find their influence/origins in , , , , , and cuisines. Culinary procedures from China, Spain, Mexico and United States integrated into cuisine practices as well.

From Doreen Fernandez, ''Palayok:''

In the Philippines, trade with China started in the 11th century, as documents show, but it is conjectured that undocumented trade may have started even two centuries earlier. Trade pottery excavated in Laguna, for example, includes pieces dating to the Tang Dynasty . The Chinese trader supplied the silks sent to Mexico and Spain in the galleon trade. In return they took back products of field, forest - beeswax, rattan - and sea, such as beche de mer. While they waited for goods and for payment, they lived here, and sometimes settled and took Filipino wives, a development that resulted in many Filipinos having Chinese origins, bloodlines and the culture now called "Chinoy" . It was a development that resulted in major Chinese inputs into Philippine cuisine.

Evidence of Chinese influence in Philippine food is easy to find, since the names are an obvious clue. ''Pansit'', the dish of noodles flavored with seafood and/or meat and/or vegetables, for example, comes from the Hokkien pian + e + sit meaning something that is conveniently cooked: usually fried," however, pansit now names only noodle dishes, and not only stir fried or sauteed, but shaken in hot water and flavored with a sauce , served with broth even a pasta form that is not noodle shaped, but is of the same flour-water formuation, such as ''pansit molo'' .

One can conjecture without fear that the early Chinese traders, wishing for the food of their homelands, made noodles in their temporary Philippine homes. Since they had to use the ingredients locally available, a sea change occurred in their dishes. If they took Filipino wives, as they often did, and these learned or ventured to cook the noodles for them, then their Filipino tastebuds came into play as well, transforming the local ingredients into a variant dish into an adapted, indigenized Filipino pansit.

Further adaptation and indigenization would occur in the different towns and regions. Thus Malabon, Rizal, a fishing village, has developed ''pansit Malabon'', which features oyster, shrimp and squid. While in Lucban, Quezon which is deeply inland and nowhere near the sea has ''pansit habhab'', which flavored only with a little meat and vegetables, and is so called because it is market food eat off the leaf .

The same thing has happened to lumpia, the Chinese eggroll which now has been incorporated into Philippine cuisine, even when it was still called ''lumpia Shanghai'' . Serving meat and/or vegetable in an edible wrapper is a Chinese technique now to be found in all of Southeast Asia in variations peculiar to each culture. The Filipino version has meat, fish, vegetables, heart of palm and combinations thereof, served fresh or fried or even bare.

The Chinese influence goes deep into Philippine cooking, and way beyond food names and restaurant fare. The use of soy sauce and other soybean products is Chinese, as is the use of such vegetables as ''petsay'', ''toge'' , pickled mustard greens . Many cooking implements still bear their Chinese name, like sianse or turner. The Filipino ''carajay'', spelled the Spanish way is actually a Chinese wok.

Cooking process, also derive from Chinese methods. ''Pesa'' is Hokkien for "plain boiled" and it is used only in reference to the cooking of fish, the complete term being peq+sa+hi, the last morpheme meaning fish. In Tagalog it can mean both fish and chicken .

Since most of the early Chinese traders and settlers in the country were from Fukien, it is Hokkien food that is most widespread in influence. Since, however, restaurant food is often Cantonese, most of the numerous Chinese restaurant in the country serve both types. Other style of Chinese cuisine are available though in the minority.

Living and traveling

Filipinos traveled to Europe in 1890, to attend the Paris Exposition, and in 1899 there lived "a group of respectable Filipinos composed in the majority of those who emigrated from the Philippines to escape the persecutions brought about by the revolution against Spain in 1896."

Chefs and cookbooks

*Martin Tinio, Jr., spoke of recipes that he or his family prepared for holidays and other special occasions, and which his parents or he himself had first encountered in France.

*Each recipe, by Mariano A. Henson of Pampanga, "gives exact measurements, the price for each condiment, the total price for each dish, and the date when he tested it. Among the French recipes he obviously cooked and served his family are: Salmon au Gratin, Chuletas a la Papillote, Bouillavaise [sic] de Marsella, Oysters a la D'Uxelles, Mechadong solomillio a la Francesa, Fish au Beurre, and Glorified Fondue" in one of his 30 cookbooks: ''Cusinang Capampangan, patina ding linutu nang ibat caring Americano, Castila, Frances, Intsic, Italiano, Polaco, Turco at aliwa pa, nahun qng paglasa nang sarili''; Pampango, .


Evidence of the French-influenced lifestyle can be seen in a magnificent set of S鋦res tableware. All plates and glasses were monogrammed, complete with large platters for pi鋃es mont嶪s and carafes for wine, gift of the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia -- and a set before that.

Examples of dishes, pastries, and others

* Pansit
* Lumpia
* Taho
* ''Maki'' - pork, beef or fish in a thick cornstarch-based soup.
* ''Kiampong'' - a variant of fried rice.
* ''Comida China'' - nowadays a Table d'hote of Chinese dishes offered in some Chinese restaurants.
* Hopya
* Kwapaw
* ''Ma-Chang'' - a variant of Lo mai gai shaped in a triangular pattern.
* Mami

Fried rice

Fried rice is a popular component of Chinese cuisine and other forms of Asian cuisine. It is made from cold rice fried with other leftover ingredients. It is sometimes served as the penultimate dish in Chinese banquets .

There are dozens of varieties of fried rice, each with their own specific list of ingredients. In Asia, the more famous varieties include Yangzhou and Fujian fried rice. In the West, Chinese restaurants catering to non-Chinese clientele have invented their own varieties of fried rice including fried rice, Singaporean fried rice and the ubiquitous 'special fried rice'.

Fried rice is a common staple in American Chinese cuisine, especially in the westernized form sold at fast-food stands. The most common form is a basic fried rice, often with some mixture of eggs, scallions, and vegetables, with chopped meat added at the customer's discretion. Fried rice is also seen in other Asian American restaurants, even in cuisines where there is no native tradition of the dish such as the Caribbean. The dish is also a staple of Chinese restaurants in the United Kingdom , and fried rice is very popular in the West African nations of Ghana and Togo, both as a restaurant food and as street food.


Ingredients used in fried rice are greatly varied. They can include:

*Vegetables such as carrots, , celery, and peas
*Chicken, pork , shrimp, or tofu
*Chili pepper or hot sauces - these are sometimes offered in a small dish served alongside the rice. Many cooks also season the fried rice with black pepper.
*Shoyu, rice wine, or cooking sherry is sometimes used as it gives fried rice a brown color.

Often cooked in a wok, it includes vegetable oil or animal fat to prevent sticking, as well as for flavor. Often, onions and garlic add zest and extra flavor. It is popularly eaten either as an accompaniment to another dish or, alternatively on its own as a course by itself.

Popular garnishes include fried shallots, sprigs of parsley, carrots carved into intricate shapes or sliced chili sprinkled on top of the heaped rice. Many food stands found on the streets across Southeast Asia will serve fried rice on the spot expecting the customer to choose which garnishes to add.

Basic method

Fried rice is made from cold rice which has already been cooked by boiling. The wok is heated with some oil, until it starts smoking. Rice is stirred quickly and uniformly to prevent burning, and to coat the rice grains with oil to prevent sticking. After 1-2 minutes the rice is flavored to taste and stirred thoroughly, then the other ingredients are added.

More often than not, the rice is also tossed with an egg to smooth its texture and enhance its flavor, and hence the name 蛋炒飯, ''dan chao fan'', meaning simply egg with fried rice. The most common method of preparing is to stir fry spices like chopped garlic in a wok briefly to release its aroma , and then to crack an egg into the wok; before the egg becomes completely cooked the rice is then added, and after some intense stir frying it is ready to be served.

Common varieties

* Bai cha - A variation of fried rice that includes diced , garlic, shoyu, and herbs usually eaten with pork.
* Canton fried rice - a Cantonese dish of fried rice typically dry, Fukien fried rice is usually served "wet", with sauce or gravy on top.
* Cha Han (チャーハン)- is Chinese fried rice suited to Japanese tastes, sometimes adding katsuobushi for flavor. 
* - A fried rice dish consisting of generous portions of shrimp, scrambled egg, along with barbecued pork. This is the most popular fried rice served in Chinese restaurants, commonly referred to simply as "special fried rice" or "house fried rice."
* Yuan yang fried rice - Fried rice dish topped with two different types of sauce, typically a savory white sauce on one half, and a red tomato-based sauce on the other half. Elaborated versions use the sauce to make a symbol.
* Thai fried rice - The flavor of this version is radically different from that of common fried rice, and comes from various additions not found in Chinese fried rice.
* American Fried Rice - Bizarre as it sounds, this style of fried rice is actually a Thai invention of hot dogs, fried chicken, eggs as side dishes or mixed in with rice fried with ketchup. Apparently, this was served to G.I.'s during the Vietnam war, but now has become very popular and commonplace all throughout Thailand. The Malaysian counterpart, substituting pork with chicken, is called ''Nasi Goreng USA''.
* Nasi goreng - a Malay and Indonesian version of fried rice. The main difference compared to fried rice is that it is cooked with sweet soy sauce . It is often accompanied by additional items such as a fried egg, fried chicken, satay, or keropok. Served in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, the southern Philippines, and most of the neighboring countries. Also very popular in the Netherlands.
* - A popular version of fried rice in Peru and Ecuador. Brought by Asian immigrants, it combines the traditional Chinese recipe with a distinct touch of South American flavor.
* Kimchi bokkeumbap or kimchi fried rice - A popular variety of fried rice prepared with Korean pickled cabbage, kimchi, and a variable list of other ingredients. Although a wide range of fried rice dishes are frequently prepared in Korean cuisine, often with whichever ingredients are handy, Kimchi Fried Rice is a popular variety.
*Garlic fried rice - Also known as ''sinangag'', this Filipino version only contains garlic and is often a breakfast fixture. Sinangag can be combined with other foods to create a new food like "Tapsilog"
*Curry fried rice - standard fried rice mixed with curry powder for a spicier flavor.
*Hawaiian fried rice – A common style of fried rice in . Usually contains egg, green onions, peas, cubed carrots, and one or both of and . Also sometimes available with kimchi added. Normally cooked in sesame oil with.
*Arroz Frito - Very similar to "Special Fried Rice", this version of fried rice can be found along side typical ''criollo'' dishes in many Cuban restaurants. This dish features ham, bbq pork, shrimp, chicken, and eggs along with a variety of vegetables. Some restaurants add ''lechón'' , lobster tails, and/or crab. Chinese Cubans are responsible for the dish's popularity.

Drunken chicken

Drunken chicken is the name given to several different ways of preparing chicken using alcoholic beverages.


In Chinese cuisine there are many different ways of cooking drunken chicken.

* One nationally known and very popular version, Shaoxing, originated in the Zhejiang province of eastern China. Shaoxing drunk chicken is cooked and marinated exclusively in historic Shaoxing wine to create a deep taste.
* In another version of the dish, the whole chicken is first then chopped up into pieces appropriately sized for picking up by chopsticks. The steamed meat, along with its juice, is cooked with scallions, ginger and salt. After the chicken is cooked it is marinated in , sherry or hard liquor, like whiskey, overnight in the refrigerator. The chicken is served chilled, often as an appetizer. Besides the liquor-flavored meat, another feature of the dish is the liquor-flavored gelatin that results from the chilled mixture of the alcohol and the cooking juices.

North America

A western version is made by standing a prepared chicken upright on a partially filled can of beer and cooking it slowly in a barbecue or oven. The can goes into the opening of the chicken so that the beer evaporates and permeates the cooking chicken. It received its name due to way the chicken wobbles once the beer has evaporated and due to the fact the chicken is flavored with evaporated beer. The wobbling and falling usually indicates the chicken is done.

Another related recipe is bourbon chicken, which is prepared from bourbon whiskey.

Latin America

The Argentine and Mexican versions of this dish are called ''pollo borracho'', and usually include green and black olives and cinnamon.

Dongpo's pork

Dongpo's pork is a famous Hangzhou dish which is made by pan-frying and then red cooking pork belly. The pork is cut to around 2 inches square in dimensions, consisting of half fat and half lean meat. The mouth feel is oily but not greasy, with the fragrance of .


Legend has it that while Su Dongpo was banished to , in a life of poverty, he made an improvement of the traditional process. He first braised the pork, added liquor and made pork, then slowly stewed it on a low heat. This dish was first launched in Huangzhou, then spread to Hangzhou, the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty, flourished, and then became one of Hangzhou's most famous dishes.

Dong'an Chicken

Dong'an Chicken is a food, consisting of parboiled chicken, chili peppers, and spices, all stir-fried with vegetable oil and vinegar. It is one of the signature dishes of chefs.


Dapanji is a popular dish in Xinjiang, China.

Etymology and preparation

The main ingredients usually include chicken, onions, garlic, green peppers, chili peppers, potatoes, ground cumin, ground Sichuan peppers, cooking oil, soy sauce, and beer.

The chicken is cut into bite size pieces , sauteed with spices and coarsely chopped vegetables, and slow cooked in beer, providing a savory and spicy casserole-like dish. It is usually served with latiaozi or lamian , and shared by family and friends in a communal manner.


Legend has it that this dish was invented by the restaurateurs along the highways, as a quick fix for the often untimely arrivals of the hungry truck drivers. However, its rich flavor and heartiness quickly became a favorite of the region, and even the nation.

Dajiang (food)

Dajiang is a type of that is popular in . The tradition of eating ''dajiang'' is said to have been started by the Manchurians, who originally occupied China's northeastern provinces. people enjoy eating raw vegetables in the summer, and ''dajiang'' is used like a salad dressing to add flavor.

The paste bears a great similarity in texture and taste to the soybean paste called ''doenjang'' , although it is milder due to the lack of added chili pepper, which is sometimes used in ''doenjang''. ''Doenjang'' is similarly used in Korean cuisine as a dip for raw vegetables.


In the countryside of the Northeastern region, it is a family tradition to make a large jar of ''dajiang'' every year. The common method of creating ''dajiang'' takes months to prepare. While some families may do start as early as the previous fall, it is usually started on the second day of the second month in the Lunar Calendar. Soybeans are picked and soaked in water for five hours, then boiled for about three hours. The boiled beans are smashed or blended into a paste, then formed into 30 cm long, 20 cm2 cross-section blocks. The blocks are placed in a cool, airy, and shaded area for three to five days to dry, then cut into 5-10 cm long sections, wrapped in paper, and stored until April or May. Usually around the eighteenth or the twenty-eighth day of the fourth month in the Lunar Calendar, the paste would have grown white mould, which indicates that it is ready. The paste is broken down into small pieces, placed in a large ''dajiang'' jar, and mixed with salt and water. A special wooden stick with a square head is used to blend the mixture. This needs to be done once or twice every day for approximately one month. During this time, the ''dajiang'' jar is covered with cotton gauze and placed under bright sunlight in order for the mixture to get fermented. Foam and impurities are scooped up during and after each mixing session. After this process, the ''dajiang'' becomes a yellowish, runny paste, and is ready to eat. One jar of ''dajiang'' can last the whole summer for a family. As ''dajiang'' paste is being consumed for each meal, more salt and water are added to make the paste last longer. The wooden tool is used every two or three days to further blend the ''dajiang'' mixture. The jar remains in the sunny area so the fermentation to continue.


In the summer, fresh vegetables are picked and washed, and mixed with ''dajiang''. ''Dajiang'' not only gives the vegetables more flavor, but also provides the salty taste for eating with ''mantou'' or grains such as rice or . Common vegetables that are commonly paired with ''dajiang'' are scallions, eggplant, and green peppers. ''Dajiang'' can also be cooked with s and minced meat to make sauce for the dish called ''zhajiangmian''.


Curry is the description of any of a general variety of spicy dishes, best known in , , , , , , , , , and other South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisines, though curry has been adopted into all of the mainstream cuisines of the Asia-Pacific region. Along with tea, curry is one of the few dishes or drinks that is truly "". But specifically, its roots come from India. The concept of curry was later brought to the West by in India from the 18th century.


The term is now used more broadly, especially in the Western world, to refer to almost any spiced, sauce-based dishes cooked in various southern and southeastern Asian styles. Though each curry has a specific name, generically any wet side dish made out of vegetables and/or meat is historically referred to as a 'curry' - especially the yellow, Indian-inspired powders and sauces with high proportions of turmeric. The dishes are given specific names that indicate the meat and/or vegetable, method of cooking, or the particular spices used.

Not all curries are made from curry powder; in India the word 'curry' is heavily used in the southern part of India in languages such as , which is analogous to "sabji" in the north. The spice mixes are known as "masala". Curry powder and Garam masala are both masalas. There is a particular north and dish, which is given the name kadi and uses yogurt, ghee, and besan. In Northern India and Pakistan, the word "curry" usually means "gravy", likely because it sounds similar to the word "tari" . Bengali dishes called "Torkari" or vegetables stewed/dry in gravy is another potential source for the anglicized "curry" since the British occupation of India started in Bengal before Madras.

Indian cuisines

Bengali cuisine

Bengali cuisine includes a plethora of curries that are commonly unknown to the outside world. They are known for their extreme spiciness. Authentic Bengali recipes are difficult to find outside Bengali kitchens, although certain dishes are popular, for example, the jhalfrezis and the prawn malai curry. Seafood and fresh fish are a great favourite with Bengalis, and a dazzling array of curries has been devised to accompany them. Mustard seeds and mustard oil are added to many recipes, so are poppy seeds, and these are flavours highly specific to the Bengali curries.

North Indian cuisines

;Punjabi cuisine

cuisine is mainly based upon Wheat, masalas , pure desi ghee, with liberal amounts of butter and cream. There are certain dishes that are exclusive to Punjab, such as Maha Di Dal and Saron Da Saag . Sandeep Bhateja, the world famous curry chef from Agra, India, is renowned for incorporating various roots into exotic curry dishes.

West Indian cuisines

;Gujarati cuisine

The typical Gujarati cuisine is called Thali which consists of Rotli , daal or kadhi, rice, and sabzi/shaak . Cuisine varies in taste and heat, depending on a given family's tastes.

South Indian cuisines

;Andhra or Telugu cuisine

Andhra Pradesh, one of the four states of south India, has its own cuisine. The main dish of Andhra/Telugu cuisine is called "Koora" in Telugu, taken with hot rice and ghee. It could be made of vegetable, combination of vegetables or meat and vegetable. It could be wet or dry . There are numerous types of recipes with various combinations of spices and in various proportions.

The second course is any liquid/soup type taken with rice and ghee. It could be made with just vegetables, “rasam”/”chaaru” or vegetable and dal, called pappu and sambar or butter milk and vegetable, called “majjiga pulusu”, and many more.

The last course is rice with either curd or buttermilk. It is believed that this soothes the effect of spices and helps digestion.

Additions to the main course are appadam and pickles. Appadam, more commonly known as Poppadam in the west, is taken along with any wet curry, pickle and liquid. Pickle plays a vital role in the Andhra cuisine. It is directly eaten with rice, dal or curd.

There are again regional variations in Andhra Pradesh cuisine. Telangana, which is in the west of Andhra Pradesh, has dishes like Ambali, jonna rotte , Sajja Rotte , and biryani , which are taken as substitutes to the usual three course meal.

Apart from the rice menu, there are certain dishes that are popular in all regions of Andhra pradesh such as biryani, upma, uppudi pindi, idli, vada, dosa & sambar, minapa attlu, etc. They are addressed as tiffins and are taken for breakfast or snack or supper or light lunch. The tiffins like puri, chole batore, chapathi and paratha have migrated down south from the Northern states.

;Karnataka cuisine

The curries of Karnataka typically have a lot more dal compared to curries of other parts of India. Some typical soup dishes include Saaru, Gojju, Thovve, Huli, Majjige Huli; which is similar to the "kadi" made in the north, Sagu or Kootu, which is eaten mixed with hot rice.

;Malayali cuisine

Malayali curries of Kerala typically contain shredded coconut paste or coconut milk, curry leaves, and various spices. Mustard seeds are used in almost every dish, along with onions, curry leaves, sliced red chillies fried in hot oil. Most of the non-vegetarian dishes are heavily spiced. Kerala is known for its traditional Sadya, a vegetarian meal served with boiled rice and a host of side-dishes, such as Parippu , Papadum, some ghee, , Rasam, Aviyal, Kaalan, Kichadi, pachadi, Injipuli, Koottukari, , Thoran, one to four types of Payasam, Boli, Olan, Pulissery, moru , Upperi, Banana chips, etc. The sadya is customarily served on a banana leaf.

;Tamil cuisine

Tamil cuisine's distinctive flavor and aroma is achieved by a blend and combination of spices, including curry leaves, tamarind, coriander, ginger, garlic, , , cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, cumin, fennel or anise seeds, fenugreek seeds, nutmeg, coconut, turmeric root or powder, and rosewater. Lentils, vegetables and dairy products are essential accompaniments, and are often served with rice. Traditionally, vegetarian foods dominate the menu with a range of non-vegetarian dishes, including freshwater fish and seafood, cooked with traditional Tamil spices and seasoning. This holds good for all the four South Indian states.

Other Indian cuisines

In other varieties of Indian cuisine, ''kadhi'' is a gravy - made by stirring yogurt into a roux of ghee and besan. The spices added vary, but usually include turmeric and black mustard seed. It is often eaten with rice.

Other South Asian cuisines

Bangladeshi cuisine

Bangladeshi cuisine has considerable regional variations. These include lots of Bengals cuisine but are known more for their original spicyness compared to Indian Bengali Cuisine. The heavy use of coconut milk is refined to the district of Khulna and Kommilla. A staple across the country is rice and fish. As a large percentage of the land in Bangladesh can be under water, fish is the major source of protein in the Bangladeshi diet. The widely popular British curry dish chicken tikka masala was likely produced by Sylheti chefs.

Pakistani cuisine

A favourite Pakistani curry is Karahi, which is either mutton or chicken cooked in a dry sauce. Lahori Karahi incorporates garlic, spices and vinegar. Peshawari karahi is a simple dish made with just meat, salt, tomatoes and corriander.

Sri Lankan cuisine

Sri Lankan cuisine mostly consists of rice and curry meals, and revolves heavily around chillies, spices, vegetables, and seafood.

British cuisine

In British cuisine, the word ''curry'' was primarily used to denote a sauce-based dish flavoured with curry powder or a paste made from the powder and oils. However, the resurgence of interest in food preparation in the UK in recent years has led to much more use of fresh spices such as ginger and garlic, and preparation of an initial masala from freshly ground dried spices, though pastes and powders are still frequently used for convenience.

The first curry recipe in Britain appeared in '''' by Hannah Glasse in 1747. The first edition of her book used only pepper and coriander seeds for seasoning of 'currey'. By the fourth edition of the book other relatively common ingredients of turmeric and ginger were used. The use of hot spices was not mentioned, which reflected the limited use of chilli in India — had only been introduced into India around the late 15th century and at that time were only popular in southern India. Many curry recipes are contained in 19th century cookbooks such as those of Charles Elme Francatelli and Mrs Beeton. In ''Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management'', a recipe for curry powder is given that contains coriander, turmeric, cinnamon, cayenne, mustard, ginger, allspice and fenugreek; although she notes that it is more economical to purchase the powder at 'any respectable shop'. According to legend, one 19th century attempt at curry resulted in the invention of Worcestershire sauce.

The popularity of curry among the general public was enhanced by the invention of 'Coronation chicken' to commemorate the coronation of in 1953. Curry sauce is a British use of curry as a condiment, usually served warm with traditional British fast food dishes such as . Curry sauce occasionally would include s.

The popularity of curry in the UK encouraged the growth of Indian restaurants. Until the early 1970s more than three quarters of Indian restaurants in Britain were identified as being owned and run by people of Bengali origin. Most were run by migrants from East Pakistan, which became Bangladesh in 1971. Bangladeshi restaurateurs overwhelmingly come from the northern district of Sylhet. Until 1998, as many as 85% of curry restaurants in the UK were Bangladeshi restaurants but in 2003 this figure declined to just over 65%. Currently the dominance of Bangladeshi restaurants is generally declining in some parts of London and the further north one travels. In Glasgow there are more restaurants of origin than any other.

Regardless of the ethnic origin of a restaurant's ownership, the menu will often be influenced by the wider Indian subcontinent , and sometimes cuisines from further afield . Some British variations on Indian food are now being exported from the UK to India. British-style curry restaurants are also popular in Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

In a relatively short space of time curry has become an integral part of British cuisine, so much so that, since the late 1990s, Chicken Tikka Masala has been commonly referred to as the "British national dish". It is now available on rail trains, as a flavour for crisps, and even as a pizza topping.

The British Curry House

Curry is eaten in almost all part of the Indian Sub-Continent and outside, namely India Bangladesh and Pakistan, it has its varying degrees of style, taste and aroma, depending on local ingredients used. Bengalis of Sylheti origin makeup only 10% of all South Asians in Britain however around 65% of all Indian restaurants in the UK and Northern Ireland are Sylheti/Bengali owned .

Bengalis in the UK settled in big cities with industrial employment. In London Bengalis settled in the East End. For centuries the East End has been the first port of call for many immigrants working in the docks and shipping from east Bengal. Their regular stopover paved the way for food/curry outlets to be opened up catering for an all male workforce as family migration and settlement took place some decades later.

Restaurants that are regarded as curry houses are open to the same standards requirements as all restaurants and can be vetted by and reported to the local environmental health department of an area. There are now many up-market "Indian Restaurants", which, while they still tend to eschew the more authentic cuisines, nonetheless apply the same high standards of food preparation.

This cuisine is characterized by the use of a common base for all the sauces to which spices are added when individual dishes are prepared. The standard "feedstock" is usually a sautéed mixture of onion, tomato, garlic and fresh ginger, to which various spices are added, depending on the recipe, but which may include: cloves, cinnamon, cardamom, chillies, peppercorns, cumin and mustard seeds. Ground coriander seed is widely used as a thickening agent, and turmeric is added for colour and its digestive qualities.

Better-quality restaurants will normally make up new sauces on a daily basis, using fresh ingredients wherever possible and grinding their own spices. More modest establishments are more likely to resort to frozen or dried ingredients and pre-packaged spice mixtures.

Although the names may be similar to traditional dishes, the recipes generally are not.

* Korma/Kurma - mild, yellow in colour, with almond and coconut powder
* Curry - medium, brown, gravy-like sauce
* Biryani - Spiced rice and meat cooked together and usually served with vegetable curry sauce.
* Dupiaza/Dopiaza - medium curry the word means "double onion" referring to the boiled and fried onions used as its primary ingredient.
* Pasanda - a mild curry sauce made with cream, coconut milk, and almonds.
* - medium, with tomatoes and paprika
* Bhuna - medium, thick sauce, some vegetables
* Dhansak - medium/hot, sweet and sour sauce with lentils . This dish often also contains pineapple.
* - fairly hot curry, red in colour and with heavy use of chili powder
* Pathia - hot, generally similar to a Madras with lemon juice and tomato purée
* Jalfrezi - onion, green chili and a thick sauce
* Samber - medium heat, sour curry made with lentils and lemons
* Vindaloo - this is generally regarded as the classic "hot" restaurant curry, although a true Vindaloo does not specify any particular level of spiciness. The name has European origins, derived from the Portuguese term "vinha d'alhos", a marinade containing wine , or sometimes vinegar, and garlic , used to prevent the pork from going off in the heat. Some recipes include potato, under the delusion that the word "Vindaloo" has something to do with potatoes .
* Phall - extremely hot dish using ground chillies, ginger and fennel.

The tandoor was introduced into Britain in the 1960s and tandoori and tikka chicken became popular dishes; Chicken Tikka Masala was said to have been invented in Glasgow by a bengali chef, when a customer demanded a sauce with a 'too dry' tikka

Other dishes may be featured with varying strengths, with those of north Indian origin, such as Butter Chicken, tending to be mild, and recipes from the south of India tending to be hotter.

Balti curries

A style of curry thought to have been developed in Birmingham, England which has spread to other western countries is traditionally cooked and served in the same, typically cast iron pot.

South East Asian cuisines

Indonesian cuisine

In Indonesian, gulai and kari or kare is based on curry. They are often highly localised and reflect the meat and vegetables available. They can therefore employ a variety of meats , seafood , fish or vegetable dishes in a spiced sauce. They use local ingredients such as chilli peppers, Kaffir lime leaves, lemon grass, Galangal, Indonesian bay leaves or salam leaves, candlenuts, turmeric, shrimp paste , cumin, coriander seed and coconut milk. One popular curry is rendang from West Sumatran cuisine, not Malaysia as is claimed in many British restaurants. Authentic rendang uses water buffalo slow-cooked in thick coconut milk over a number of hours to tenderise and flavour the meat. In Aceh, curries use daun salam koja or daun kari . is another kind of curry.

Malaysian cuisine

Being at the crossroad of the ancient trade routes has left a unique mark on the Malaysian cuisine. Practically everything on the Asian menu can be found here, and the local fare is also a reflection of its multi-cultural, multi-ethnic heritage. While the curry may have initially found its way to Malaysian shores via the Indian population, it has since become a staple among the Malays and Chinese too. Malaysian curries differ from state to state, even within similar ethnic groupings as they are influenced by the many factors, be it cultural, religious, agricultural or economical.

Malaysian curries typically use curry powders rich in turmeric, coconut milk, shallots, ginger, belacan , chilis, and garlic. Tamarind is also often used. Rendang is another form of curry consumed in Malaysia, although it is drier and contains mostly meat and more coconut milk than a conventional Malaysian curry. Rendang is originated from Indonesia but became very popular among Malays in Malaysia and Singapore. All sorts of things are curried in Malaysia, including goat, chicken, shrimp, cuttlefish, fish, fish head, aubergine, eggs, and mixed vegetables. So rich and different are the flavours that today Malaysian-themed restaurants are mushrooming globally from Canada to Australia, and Malaysian curry powders too are now much sought-after internationally.

Thai cuisine

In Thai cuisine, curries are meat, fish or vegetable dishes in a spiced sauce. They use local ingredients such as chili peppers, Kaffir lime leaves, lemon grass, Galangal and coconut milk, and tend to be more aromatic than Indian curries as a result. Curries are often described by colour; use red chilis while use green chilis. are more similar to Indian curries, with their use of turmeric and cumin. Yellow curries in Thailand usually don't contain potatoes except in southern style cooking, however, Thai restaurants abroad usually have them. Yellow curry is also called ''gaeng curry'' , of which a word-for-word translation would be "soup curry" or "curry curry".

* Thai curries:
** Yellow curry
** Massaman curry
** Green curry
** Red curry
** Khao soi
* There are also other dishes with curry powder added.

Other Southeast Asian cuisines

East Asian cuisines

Chinese cuisine

Chinese curries typically consist of green peppers, chicken, beef, fish, lamb, or other meats, onions, large chunks of potatoes, and a variety of other ingredients and spices in a mildly spicy yellow curry sauce, and topped over steamed rice. White pepper, soy sauce, hot sauce, and/or hot chili oil may be applied to the sauce to enhance the flavour of the curry.

The most common Chinese variety of curry sauce is usually sold in the powder form. It seem to have descended from a Singaporean and Malaysian variety, countries which also introduced the Satay sauce to the Chinese. The ethnic Cantonese being most dominant in Kuala Lumpur and Singapore, this yellow, Chinese-Malaysian variety was naturally introduced to China by the Cantonese, and features typically in the Hong Kong cuisine.

Chinese curry is popular in North America, and there are many different varieties of Chinese curry, depending on each restaurant. Unlike other Asian curries, which usually have a thicker consistency, Chinese curry is often watery in nature. 'Galimian,' or 'curry noodles,' are also a popular Chinese curry dish.

Japanese cuisine

is one of the most popular dishes in Japan, where people eat it 62 times a year according to a survey. It is usually thicker, sweeter, and not as hot as its Subcontinental equivalent. It is usually eaten as ''karē raisu'' — curry, rice and often pickled vegetables, served on the same plate and eaten with a spoon, a common lunchtime canteen dish.

Curry was introduced to Japan by the British in the Meiji era after Japan ended its policy of national self-isolation , and curry in Japan is categorized as a . Its spread across the country is commonly attributed to its use in the and which adopted it extensively as convenient field and naval canteen cooking, allowing even conscripts from the remotest countryside to experience the dish. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force still traditionally have curry every Friday for lunch and many ships have their own unique recipes.

The standard Japanese curry contains onions, carrots, potatoes and a meat. Sometimes grated apples or honey are added for additional sweetness and other vegetables are sometimes used instead. For the meat, pork, beef and chicken are the most popular, in order of decreasing popularity. In northern and eastern Japan including Tokyo, pork is the most popular meat for curry. Beef is more common in western Japan, including Osaka, and in Okinawa chicken is favored.

Sometimes the curry-rice is topped with breaded pork cutlet ; this is called ''Katsu-karē'' . Korokke are also a common topping.

Apart from with rice, ''karē udon'' and are also popular.


Other countries have their own varieties of curry, well known examples include:

* : Cape malay curries
* : Curry Goat
* Cuisine of Trinidad and Tobago:Most notably, curry chicken, curry goat, curry shrimp, curry aloo.
* : Kare-kare
* Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga: Known generally as "kare" or "kale," the spice is a popular ingredient in curried lamb, mutton, and chicken stew. Often accompanied by coconut milk.
* : Wat, a thick, heavily spiced stew.
* : Groundnut Stew, though not technically a curry, is a similar style
* : Currywurst

Curry powder is used as an incidental ingredient in other cuisines, including for example a "curry sauce" variation of the classic French béchamel.

In Iranian cuisine, a ground spice mixture called ''advieh'' is used in many stews and rice dishes. It is similar to some curries. Ingredients in the mix vary, but may include cinnamon, cardamom, cumin, coriander, turmeric, black pepper, cloves, allspice, dried rose petals, and ground ginger. It is usually mellow and mild, not spicy hot.

In the West Indies, curry is a very popular dish. The indentured servants that were brought over from India by different European powers, brought this dish, as well as their culture, to the West Indies. In Jamaica and Trinidad, curry goat is prominently featured. The sauces for other curries are usually thinner than a true Indian curry, but some exceptions can be made. Curry can be found at both non expensive and upscale Caribbean restaurants, and ingredients can range from Chicken or vegetables to shellfish such as shrimp and scallops.

Cambodia, Vietnam i.e South East Asia also have their own versions of curry. Note that both Cambodia and Vietnam have had many influences from Indian cuisine/culture due to South Asian travellers centuries before, as well as the Champa Kingdom found in central Vietnam.

Curry addiction

A number of studies have claimed that the reaction of pain receptors to the hotter ingredients in curries, even Korma, leads to the body's release of endorphins and combined with the complex sensory reaction to the variety of spices and flavours, a natural high is achieved that causes subsequent cravings, often followed by a desire to move on to hotter curries. Some refer to this as addiction, but other researchers contest the use of the word "addiction" in this instance. Additionally, curry addiction is an example of a ''colloquial'' use of the word "addiction" as the medical definition of the word requires continued use despite harmful effects. Since medicine has not shown harmful effects of curry consumption, the use of the word "addiction" is contestable.

Curry powder

Curry powder, also known as masala powder, is a spice mixture of widely varying composition developed by the British during the as a means of approximating the taste of Indian cuisine at home. Masala refers to spices, and this is the name given to the thick and pasty sauce based on a combination of spices with ghee , butter, palm oil or coconut milk. Most commercial curry powders available in Britain, the U.S. and Canada, rely heavily on ground turmeric, in turn producing a very yellow sauce. Lesser ingredients in these Western yellow curry powders are often coriander, cumin, fenugreek, mustard, chili, black pepper and salt. It should be reiterated that curry powders and pastes produced and consumed in India are extremely diverse; some red, some yellow, some brown; some with five spices and some with as many as 20 or more. Besides the previously mentioned spices, other commonly found spices in different curry powders in India are allspice, white pepper, ground mustard, ground ginger, cinnamon, roasted cumin, cloves, nutmeg, mace, green cardamom seeds or black cardamom pods, bay leaves and coriander seeds.

Drinks accompanying curry


Lassi is a yoghurt based drink that is consumed with curry.

Tea is often drunk with curry.


*Lager is a popular accompaniment to curry, particularly in the United Kingdom, with popular brands being and
*Wine is increasingly popular with curry, especially amongst those who seek something refreshing and alcoholic without the added gas of a lager. ''Wine for Spice'' produced a range of refreshing wines developing on the cold-lager-with-curry concept. The Charmat method naturally second-fermented semi-sparkling wine is recommended lager-cold but, unlike a lager, the gas is natural. Mass-produced lager has carbon dioxide injected into it, which produces larger bubbles than a second fermentation.
Wine for Spice's formula for Matching Wine with Curry is: naturally second-fermented semi-sparkling wine; lager-cold; good acidity; no tannin; no oak chips; moderate alcohol; sweetness of wine rising with heat.

Health benefits

Some studies have shown that ingredients in curry may help to prevent certain diseases, including colon cancer and Alzheimer's disease.

Further reading

* K.T. Achaya. ''A Historical Dictionary of Indian Food'' 1998
* ''Indian Food: A Historical Companion''. 1994
* David Burton. ''The Raj at Table'' 1993
* E.M. Collingham. '''' 2005
* Madhur Jaffrey. ''An Invitation to Indian Cooking'' 1975


Zong, or zongzi is a , made of glutinous rice stuffed with different fillings and wrapped in bamboo leaves. They are cooked by steaming or boiling. They are known in Japanese as chimaki. Laotians, Thais, Cambodians, and Vietnamese also have similar traditional dishes influenced by ''zongzi''.


''Zongzi'' is traditionally eaten during the Dragon Boat Festival which falls on the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese calendar , commemorating the death of Qu Yuan, a famous Chinese poet from the kingdom of who lived during the Warring States period. Known for his patriotism, Qu Yuan tried unsuccessfully to warn his king and countrymen against the expansionism of their Qin neighbors. When the Qin Dynasty general Bai Qi took Yingdu, the Chu capital, in 278 BC, Qu Yuan's grief was so intense that he drowned himself in the Miluo river after penning the Lament for Ying. According to legend, packets of rice were thrown into the river to prevent fish from eating the poet's body. Another version states that zongzi were given to placate a that lived in the river.


The shape of ''zongzi'' range from relatively tetrahedral to cylindrical. Wrapping a ''zongzi'' neatly is a skill which is passed down through , as are the recipes. Like ''tamale''-making in Mexico, ''zongzi''-making was traditionally a family event with everyone helping out, but that is less common now.

While traditional Chinese ''zongzi'' are wrapped in bamboo leaves, the leaves of , maize, banana, , or leaves are sometimes used as substitutes in other cultures. Each kind of leaf imparts its own unique smell and flavour to the rice.

The fillings used for ''zongzi'' vary from region to region, but the rice used is always glutinous rice . Depending on the region, the rice may be lightly precooked by stir-frying or soaked before using. Fillings may be sweet, with:


*Skinless mung beans
*Red bean paste
Or savoury with fillings such as:
*Char siu
*Chinese sausage
*Chinese black mushrooms
*Salted duck eggs
*Cooked peanuts
*Green beans
* pork
*Curry Chicken

Red bean paste ''zongzi'' take a particularly long time to prepare. The used for the filling must be simmered until soft, drained, skinned, and mashed into a paste that is stir-fried with sugar.

''Zongzi'' need to be or for several hours depending on how the rice is treated prior to filling. Once cooked, the ''zongzi'' can easily be frozen for later consumption. Frozen ''zongzi'' are available for sale in many Chinese markets.


*''Pseudo-zongzi'' : Instead of glutinous rice, mochi-like balls of glutinous rice flour are used to "contain" the filling of the ''zong''. These ''zong'' are typically smaller than most ''zongzi'' and much more sticky. This is how the Hakka traditionally make their zongzi .
*''Jianshui zong'' : The glutinous rice is treated with lye water , which gives them a distinctive yellow colour. ''Jianshui zong'' are typically filled with sweet fillings, although some are unfilled. This is the variation that usually contain no filling and are often eaten with sugar or light syrup.
*''Nonya zong'' : A specialty of Peranakan cuisine. The ''zong'' are made in similar style with similar fillings as Southern ''zong'', however the wrapping used are pandan leaves.


*Due to their prolonged cooking times, doneness is a constant issue with cooking zong. An old superstition says that it will not cook properly if a pregnant woman enters the kitchen while they are being steamed.
*In 2005, the earliest zongzi ever found in China was discovered in a 700 year old tomb in Dean County, Jiangxi Province.
*Chinese authorities issued ''zongzi'' health warnings for the 2006 Dragon Boat Festival due to copper s being used to enhance the color of the leaves used for wrapping in some factories.

Yin si juan

Yin si juan is a traditional dish of Beijing cuisine.


The traditional culinary method of this dish begins with the preparation of the main ingredient by first adding baking soda to 350 grams of flour, and mixing the ingredients well. The next step was to add another 150 grams of flour, and then apply the same method of making lamian by stretching the dough eight times so the resulting noodle totaled 256. The noodles were then spread out and 100 grams of solid pork fat is evenly applied via brushing. After applying the pork fat, the noodles would be cut into small section averaging 5 to 6 each.
The remaining flour would be mixed with 25 grams of sugar and made into wrappers of 3 thick, and the noodle section is wrapped in. The resulting products would first be baked atop of stove for six to seven minutes, and after the size has been increased, the product would be either steamed for 20 minutes, or baked in the oven until the color turns to gold before serving. For the specified amount of ingredient listed, the water needed is around 250 grams.
This dish is currently rather rare due to the use of pork fat which is deemed unhealthy.

Yeung Chow fried rice

"Yeung Chow Fried Rice" or "Yang Zhou Chao Fan" is a popular Guangdong style wok fried dish in most restaurants in North America and Hong Kong. The ingredients vary, but there are staple items like:

* hot cooked rice
* cooked shrimp
* scallions, chopped, including green ends
* eggs slightly stirred
* cabbage

Chinese barbecued pork or 'cha siu' is an essential ingredient in Yang Zhou Fried Rice. It is the barbecued pork that gives it its special sweetish flavour . Still, there have been attempts by people in Yangzhou to patent the dish.


Wok hei

Wok hei is a term in referring to the flavour, tastes, and "essence" imparted by a hot wok on the food. The word ''hei'' is equivalent to ''qi'' . The term is sometimes rendered as ''wok chi'' in Western cookbooks.

When cooked correctly, the "essence" of the food comes through the flavour and the dish is said to "have ''wok hei''". To impart ''wok hei'', the food must be cooked in a wok over a high flame while being stirred and tossed quickly. In practical terms, the flavour imparted by chemical compounds results from caramelization, Maillard reactions, and the partial combustion of oil that come from charring and searing of the food at very high heat in excess of 200 °C . According to the Professional Chef, a textbook for the Culinary Institute of America, stir fry technique does not require as much fat as typical western dishes because of a combination of the metal type and the constant shifting of the food during cook time. As diners usually elect their food with chopsticks from a shared serving bowl, any excess oil remains in the bottom of the serving dish rather than being eaten.

Vegetarianism in China

Vegetarianism has been practised for almost two thousand years in China for both religious and philosophical reasons. Its practitioners have included famous historical figures such as Cao Cao, a warlord of the Three Kingdoms, and the 6th Century emperor , the founder of the Liang Dynasty of southern China.

Vegetarian cooking takes at least three recognized forms:
*Plain vegetable dishes, commonly served at home or in ordinary restaurants.
*Imitation meat dishes derived from Qing court cuisine, which use gluten, beancurd, and taro to mimic the natural attributes of meat, fowl, and fish.
*Buddhist cooking, which often avoids onions, ginger, garlic and other spices considered stimulating.

Options for vegetarians in China today

Options for strict vegetarians in Chinese restaurants today are still rather limited, despite a growing interest in vegetarian cuisine.

Vegetables are considered intrinsically healthy, but the Chinese have also traditionally believed that they lack any physically fortifying properties, and strict vegetarian diets are unusual except for religious reasons. There is also, generally speaking, a stigma attached to not eating meat.

Vegetable-only dishes are widely available, though cooking fat and stocks are usually of animal origin.

Most of vegetarian restaurants are located in the big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. Sometimes, imitation meat dishes are still called by their usual name, such as West Lake fish, honey pork or roast duck.

In smaller places usually vegetarian dining rooms are located or run by Buddhist temples which are open to the public at lunchtime.


Tuotuorou is a dish of the Yi people of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi provinces of China. It is often served to guests in Yi households, along with buckwheat pancakes , garlic soup and unpeeled boiled potatoes.
It consists of tender chunks of pork taken from young pigs of less than 15 kg in weight. This is seasoned with local herbs.

These are served in traditional Yi wooden dishes, and eaten with long-handled spoons instead of chopsticks.


Tilapia is the for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid . Tilapias inhabit a variety of and, less commonly, brackish water habitats from shallow streams and ponds through to rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Most tilapias are with a preference for soft aquatic vegetation and detritus. They have historically been of major importance in in Africa and the Levant, and are of increasing importance in aquaculture around the world . Where tilapia have been deliberately or accidentally , they have frequently become problematic invasive species .


The common name tilapia is based on the name of the genus '''', which is itself a latinisation of ''thiape'', the word for "fish". The genus name and term was first introduced by zoologist in 1840.

As they have been introduced globally for human consumption , tilapia often have specific names for them in various languages and dialects. Certain species of tilapia are sometimes called "St. Peter's fish." This term is taken from the account in the about the apostle catching a fish that carried a shekel coin in its mouth. However, no species of fish is named in that passage of the Bible. While that name is also applied to ''Zeus faber'', a marine fish not found in the area, one tilapia is known to be found in Sea of Galilee where the account took place. This particular species is known to have been the target of small-scale in the area for thousands of years. In some Asian countries including the Philippines, large tilapia are often referred to as ''pla-pla'' while their smaller brethren are still referred to as ''tilapia''. In Hebrew, tilapia are called ''amnoon'' . In Arabic, tilapia are called ''bolty'' .


Tilapia has become the third most important fish in aquaculture after carps and s, with production reaching 1,505,804 metric tons in 2002. Because of their large size, rapid growth, and palatability, a number of tilapiine cichlids are at the focus of major aquaculture efforts, specifically various species of ''Oreochromis'', ''Sarotherodon'', and ''Tilapia'', collectively known colloquially as tilapias. Like other large fish, they are a good source of protein and a popular target for artisanal and commercial . Originally, the majority of such fisheries were in Africa, but accidental and deliberate introductions of tilapia into freshwater lakes in Asia have led to outdoor aquaculturing projects in countries with a tropical climate such as Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, and Indonesia. In temperate zone localities, tilapiine farming operations require energy to warm the water to the tropical temperatures these fish require. One method involves warming the water using waste heat from factories and power stations.

Non-indigenous populations

Tilapia have been used as biological controls for certain aquatic plant problems. They prefer a floating aquatic plant, duckweed but also consume some filamentous alga . In Kenya tilapia were introduced to which were causing malaria. They consume mosquito larvae, consequently reducing the numbers of adult female mosquitoes, the of the disease . These benefits are, however, frequently outweighed by the negative aspects of tilapia as invasive species. In Kenya the Tilapia found in Lake Victoria , is referred to as Ngege by the Luo. Its export to the European market has threatened its availability to the Luos who consider it a staple food.


The larger tilapias are generally not viewed as good community aquarium fish because they eat plants and tend to be very disruptive, digging up the substrate and fighting with other fish. The smaller west African species, such as ''Tilapia joka'', and those species from the crater lakes of Cameroon are, by contrast, relatively popular. Conversely, in cichlid aquariums tilapias can be mixed well with non-territorial cichlids, , , garpike, and other robust but peaceful fish. Some species, including ''Tilapia buttikoferi'', ''Tilapia rendalli'', ''Tilapia joka'', and the brackish-water '''', are attractively patterned and decorative fish.


* : Interactions between fish and aquatic macrophytes in inland waters. A review. ''FAO Fisheries Technical Papers'' 396.
* : ''Tilapiine fishes of the genera ''Sarotherodon'', ''Oreochromis'' and ''Danakilia. Published by the British Museum , London. 583 pages. ISBN 0-565-00878-1

Tilapia (braised)

Braised tilapia is a common dish eaten in Taiwan because of its cheapness and abundance there.

Susur Lee

Susur Lee is a celebrated chef based in Toronto, Ontario. He was born in Hong Kong, the youngest of four children. He served his culinary apprenticeship at Hong Kong's renowned Peninsula Hotel. He immigrated to Canada in 1978, where he worked his way to executive chef status at a number of restaurants. Lee currently owns two restaurants in Toronto, Susur, and Lee, located side-by-side at 601 and 603 King St. West. His eclectic style is described as fusion cuisine.

The internationally acclaimed restaurant Susur opened its doors in 2000, and was designed with aid from his wife, Brenda Bent . Recognized by '''', '''' and ''Food & Wine'', among others, Susur has been on various international Top 50 lists, including ''Restaurant'''s World's 50 Best Restaurants Awards. Instead of offering a traditional menu, a tasting menu is built each day from whatever inspires Lee at the marketplace that morning.

He was the second Canadian chef to appear on the Food Network's ''Iron Chef America'' in a battle with Iron Chef Bobby Flay, resulting in a tie. The episode first aired on May 3 2006. The theme ingredient was bacon. Lee has also been a guest chef on Ming Tsai's show, East Meets West, on the Food Network.

Restaurants with which Lee has been affiliated with include:

* Madeline's Toronto 2008-present
* Lee Toronto 2004-present
* Susur Toronto 2000-2008
* Tung Lok Group
* Prague Fine Food Emporium 1998
* Club Chinois Singapore
* Ritz-Carlton Singapore Singapore 1997
* Kojis Kaizen Montreal
* Hemispheres Toronto
* Oceans 1990
* Lotus Toronto
* La Bastille Toronto 1987
* Lela Toronto
* Peter Pan Toronto
* Le Trou Normand Toronto
* Le Connaisseur Toronto
* The Westbury Hotel Toronto
* Peninsula Hotel Hong Kong


Lee will be heading to New York City in the fall of 2008 to be head chef at Thompson LES Hotel. This move caused his Toronto restaurant Susur to close and re-open as Madeline’s, a themed restaurant. His other Toronto eatery Lee will remain open.


* '''', cowritten with Jacob Richler

TV appearances

*At The Table With... - biography on Susur's career
* - Guest chef
*Iron Chef America- he has battled Bobby Flay and
*Opening Soon
*Restaurant Makeover - Dhaba Indian Experience
*This is Daniel Cook
*Toronto Life - Restaurants


Sriracha is the generic name for Thai-style hot sauce named after the seaside city of , Thailand, where it was first produced for the local seafood restaurants. Typically made from sun-ripened chili peppers, vinegar, garlic, sugar and salt, it is a common condiment in many Asian restaurants.


The flavor of both Thai and popular non-Thai versions is dominated by its central ingredient, hot chilies. To achieve a blend of hot, sweet, and spicy, other items such as sugar, salt, garlic, and vinegar are typically added. Traditional Thai Sriracha tends to be more tangy and thinner than non-Thai, which is often thicker in texture. Versions featuring lemon grass, ginger, galanga and other exotic flavors have been introduced in Thailand for the export market.

Originally exclusively a fresh sauce domestically consumed, Sriracha sold as a prepared product typically contains preservatives such as potassium sorbate, sodium bisulfite, and citric acid to maintain its shelf life before and after opening.

Common Uses

In Thailand, Sriracha is frequently found as a dipping sauce, particularly for seafood. Beyond its native boundaries Sriracha serves as a general-purpose hot sauce in a variety of cuisines, appearing anywhere from a condiment for Vietnamese ph? to a topping for sushi rolls and pizza in the United States. Increasingly Sriracha is used in snack foods in America, appearing in a sauce for buffalo wings, atop French fries, sandwiches, pasta sauces, even combined with parmesan cheese on hot popcorn.

U.S. Trademark

There are many different brands of Sriracha sauce in Thailand. The first mass marketed Thai-produced Sriracha is made by Sriracha Panich . Sriracha Panich was eventually taken over by the Thai Theparos Food Products Public Company Limited of Thailand which continues to market the sauce under the label "Golden Mountain Sriracha Panich". The popular “Sriracha” of American Asian food shops, restaurants, and tables is a proprietary product of Huy Fong Foods, which has trademarked the name there. Due to the rooster graphic on the bottle, Huy Fong's product is known colloquially in the U.S. as "rooster sauce." Thus importers of even authentic “Sriracha” type hot sauce may not use the term “Sriracha” for their products in the U.S., including Golden Mountain.

Soy sauce chicken

Soy sauce chicken is a dish. It is made of chicken that is cooked with soy sauce.

Soy milk

Soy milk and sometimes referred to as soy drink/beverage is a beverage made from soy beans. A stable emulsion of oil, water and protein, it is produced by soaking dry soybeans, and grinding them with water. Soy milk contains about the same proportion of protein as cow's milk~ around 3.5%; also 2% fat, 2.9% carbohydrate and 0.5% . Soy milk can be made at home with traditional kitchen tools or with a .

Tofu is made by coagulating the protein from soy milk, just as cheese is made from milk.


Soy milk may have originated in China, a region where soybean was native and used as food long before the existence of written records. The earliest written record comes from Liu An using it as a medicine, and a later record of the drink as a medicine could be found in Bencao Gangmu. Later on, the soybean and soybean foods were transplanted to Japan. Soybean milk is reputed to have been discovered and developed by Liu An of the Han Dynasty in China about 164 BC. Liu An is also credited with the development of "Doufu" in China which 900 years later spread to Japan where it is known as "tofu".


The term for soy milk is "豆漿" . In Western nations, soy milk products packaged for Chinese-speaking consumers may be labeled "豆奶"
. However, there are products in China that is called ''dòu nǎi'' made from a mix of both cow milk powder and ground, dried soybean. The term for soy milk is ''tōnyū'' which contains no cow milk. In Singapore, it is known as ''tau-huey-tzui'' in the local Hokkien dialect while in Malaysia it is known as "susu soya" or "air tauhu" in the local Malay language.
Soy milk is commonly available in vanilla and chocolate flavors as well as its original unflavored form. Plain soy milk is unsweetened, although most products comes as sweetened, drinking salted soy milk is still very common in China.
In many countries, this product may not be sold under the name ''milk'' since it is not a dairy product, hence the name ''soy drink''.


Soy milk has increased in popularity in the West as a substitute for cow's milk. In some Western nations where veganism has made inroads, it is available upon request at most cafés and coffee franchises as a cow's milk substitute, usually at an extra cost.

The drink has proven to be very popular in the environment of Penang, Malaysia with it being a standard offering at the numerous coffee shops and hawker centers around the island. The soybean milk, known locally as ''tau chui'' or "air tauhu/ susu soya" is flavoured with either a white or brown sugar syrup. The consumer also has the option to add grass jelly, known as ''leong fan'' or "cincau" to the beverage. Sellers of soybean milk in Penang usually also offer , a related custard-like dessert, known to the locals as ''tau hua'' which is flavored with the same syrup as the soybean milk.

Yeo's, a local Malaysian company is marketing a commercialized tinned or boxed version of soybean milk. They also market a similar product, but of grass jelly. Known colloquially as "cincau soya", these products are usually linked, for consumers to mix as they please.


Health benefits

Soy milk is nutritionally close to cow's milk. It naturally has about the same amount of protein as cow's milk. Natural soy milk contains little digestible calcium as it is bound to the bean's , which is insoluble in a human. To counter this, many manufacturers enrich their products with calcium carbonate available to human digestion. Unlike cow's milk it has little saturated fat and no cholesterol, which many consider to be a benefit. Soy products contain sucrose as the basic disaccharide, which breaks down into glucose and fructose. Since soy doesn't contain galactose, a product of lactose breakdown, it can safely replace breast milk in children with Galactosemia.

Soy milk is promoted as a healthy alternative to cow's milk for reasons including:

*Source of lecithin and vitamin E
*Lacks casein
*It is safe for people with lactose intolerance or milk allergy
*Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are good for the heart.
*Contains isoflavones, organic chemicals that may possibly be beneficial to health.

In 1995 the New England Journal of Medicine published a report from the University of Kentucky entitled "Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Soy Protein Intake on Serum Lipids." It was financed by the PTI division of DuPont, The Solae Co of St. Louis. This meta-analysis concluded that soy protein is correlated with significant decreases in serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein , and triglyceride concentrations. However, high density lipoprotein , did not increase. Soy phytoestrogens absorbed onto the soy protein were suggested as the agent reducing serum cholesterol levels. On the basis of this research PTI, in 1998, filed a petition with FDA for a health claim that soy protein may reduce cholesterol and the risk of heart disease. The FDA granted this health claim for soy: "25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease." One serving of soy milk , for instance, contains 6 or 7 grams of soy protein.

In January, 2006 an American Heart Association review of a decade-long study of soy protein benefits cast doubt on the FDA-allowed "Heart Healthy" claim for soy protein. The panel also found that soy isoflavones do not reduce post menopause "hot flashes" in women, nor do isoflavones help prevent cancers of the breast, uterus, or prostate. Among the conclusions the authors state, "In contrast, soy products such as tofu, soy butter, soy nuts, or some soy burgers should be beneficial to cardiovascular and overall health because of their high content of polyunsaturated fats, fiber, vitamins, and minerals and low content of saturated fat. Using these and other soy foods to replace foods high in animal protein that contain saturated fat and cholesterol may confer benefits to cardiovascular health."

Negative health effects

However, the soy industry has also received similar criticism for reasons which include the following:

*A 2008 study found that men who consume an average of half a portion of soy products per day are more likely to have a lower concentration of sperm.
*High levels of phytic acid, which binds to important nutrients like calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc, during digestion. However, as a comparison, cow's milk is known for significantly slowing down the absorption of iron and, additionally, calcium from other than dairy sources .

Although in general soy milk is not suitable for babies or infants , there exist baby formulas based on soy protein, that are used primarily in the case of children, those allergic to cow's milk, or parental preference for a vegetarian or vegan diet. These formulas commonly contain extra carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals. However, care must be taken that children with "Soy protein intolerance" are not fed soy milk. Heinz Soya Infant Formula is approved by the Vegan Society in the UK.


Soy milk can be made from whole soybeans or full-fat soy flour. The dry beans are soaked in water overnight or for a minimum of 3 hours or more depending on the temperature of the water. The rehydrated beans then undergo wet grinding with enough added water to give the desired solids content to the final product. The ratio of water to beans on a weight basis should be about 10:1. The resulting slurry or purée is brought to a boil in order to improve its nutritional value by heat inactivating soybean trypsin inhibitor, improve its flavor and to sterilize the product. Heating at or near the boiling point is continued for a period of time, 15-20 minutes, followed by the removal of an insoluble residue by filtration.

There is a simple yet profound difference between traditional Chinese and Japanese soy milk processing: the Chinese method boils the filtrate after a cold filtration, while the Japanese method boils the slurry first, followed by hot filtration of the slurry. The latter method results in a higher yield of soy milk but requires the use of an anti-foaming agent or natural defoamer during the boiling step. Bringing filtered soy milk to a boil avoids the problem of foaming. It is generally opaque, white or off-white in color, and approximately the same consistency as cow's milk.

For all raw soybean protein products heat is necessary to destroy the activity of the protease inhibitors naturally present in the soybean. The pancreas naturally secretes proteases to digest a protein meal. Eating raw soybeans on a regular basis causes the pancreas to hypersecrete, leading to benign tumors of the pancreas . This is why the above heating to properly prepare soymilk is essential for fatty acid breakdown.

When soybeans absorb water, the endogenous enzyme, Lipoxygenase , EC linoleate:oxidoreductase, catalyzes a reaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxygen . LOX initiates the formation of free radicals, which can then attack other cell components. Soybean seeds are the richest known sources of LOXs. It is thought to be a defensive mechanism by the soybean against fungal invasion.

In 1967, experiments at Cornell University and the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station at Geneva, NY led to the discovery that paint-like, off-flavors of traditional soy milk can be prevented from forming by a rapid hydration grinding process of dehulled beans at temperatures above 80 °C. The quick moist heat treatment inactivates the LOX enzyme before it can have a significant negative effect on flavor. All modern bland soy milks have been heat treated in this manner to destroy LOX.

Normal mature soybeans actually contain three LOX isozymes important for undesirable flavor development. One or more of these isozymes have recently been removed genetically from soybeans yielding soy milk with less cooked beany aroma and flavor and less astringency. An example of a triple LOX-free soybean is the American soybean named "Laura".

The University of Illinois has developed a soy milk that makes use of the entire soybean. What would normally constitute "insolubles" are ground so small by homogenization as to be in permanent suspension.

Commercial products labeled "soy drink" in the West are often derivatives of soy milk containing more water or added ingredients.


Soy milk is found in many vegan and vegetarian food products and can be used as a replacement for cow's milk in many recipes.

"Sweet" and "salty" soy milk are both traditional Chinese breakfast foods, served either hot or cold, usually accompanied by breads like mantou , ''youtiao'' , and shaobing . The soy milk is typically sweetened by adding cane sugar or, sometimes, simple syrup. "Salty" soy milk is made with a combination of chopped pickled mustard greens , dried shrimp and, for curdling, vinegar, garnished with ''youtiao'' croutons, chopped scallion , , , or shallot as well as sesame oil, soy sauce, chili oil or salt to taste.

Soy milk is used in many kinds of , such as in making as well as sometimes a base soup for nabemono.

In Korean cuisine, soy milk is used as a soup for making ''kongguksu'', cold noodle soup eaten mostly in summer.

Tofu is produced from soy milk by further steps of curdling and then draining.

Soy milk is also used in making soy yogurt and soy kefir.

Nutrition and health information

Nutrients in 8 ounces of plain soymilk:

Ecological impact

Using soybeans to make milk instead of raising cows is said to have advantages, as the amount of soy that could be grown using the same amount of land would feed more people than if used to raise cows . This is debated as grazing land for animals is very different from land used to farm, and requires fewer pesticides. However, cows require much more energy in order to produce milk, since the farmer must feed the animal, which consumes 40 kilos of food and 90 to 180 liters of water a day, while a soy bean needs merely fertilization, water and land. Because the soybean plant is a legume, it also replenishes the nitrogen content of the soil in which it is grown.

In Brazil the explosion of soybean cultivation has led to losing large tracts of forest land leading to ecological damage ; however, these cleared forests are planted with soy intended for animal agricultural enterprises--not human consumption.

It was an American soil scientist, Dr. Andrew McClung, who first devised a method to grow soybeans in the Cerrado region of Brazil. He was awarded with the 2006 World Food Prize.

Soy egg

Soy egg is a type of egg cooked in soy sauce, sugar, water, as well as possibly other herbs and spices.


Soy egg may be eaten individually as a snack. It is sometimes used as a condiment in congee. It may also be used in a traditional Chinese egg dish, in which regular , century eggs, and soy eggs are steamed together.


Soy eggs are commonly sold in convenience stores in East Asian countries.


Siopao are Chinese steamed bread buns filled with meat , vegetables or sweet filling . "Siopao' is the Cantonese pronunciation for the steamed bread buns.

Siopao is the Filipino version of the Chinese baozi . It is also called salapao in Thailand.

It is a popular food item in the Philippines. It does not require utensils to eat and can be consumed on-the-go. Like baozi, there are several siopao stuffing varieties which could be either Asado or Bola-bola that may be using pork, chicken, beef, shrimp, eggs, and possibly chopped scallions and water chestnuts as well.

Outside of the Philippines, many Filipino restaurants offer variants of siopao with local ingredients ranging from and canned pineapple in Hawaii, to haute cuisine concoctions involving foie gras and truffles. '''' It could also be possible for a very rare variant of "Cat Siopao" - where stuffed inside Mantou is cat's flesh. In the Philippines, it's just usually a joke, but technically possible and most probably practiced.

Simply Ming

Simply Ming is a television cooking show hosted by chef Ming Tsai, and is produced by WGBH, Boston and Ming East-West, LLC. ''Simply Ming'' is presented by American Public Television. Underwriters of the show include Ocean Spray, Breitling, Contessa Foods, and All-Clad cooking utensils.

The premise of the show consists of Chef Ming presenting a method for a "master sauce" or "master recipe", after which he prepares several other recipes using the master sauce/recipe as an ingredient. He also has other guests invited to the show with their creations using the same master sauce.

The latest season of the show takes on a different theme—combining eastern and western foods and condiments, using the same format as previous seasons.

Shui Xi

Sh?i Xí , or Water Banquet, is a Chinese set of dishes comprising 8 cold and 16 warm dishes cooked in various broths, gravies, or juices, hence its name. It is considered one of the Three Wonders of Luoyang , along with the peony and the Longmen Grottoes.


The Water Banquet is an offshoot of Henan cuisine, and has existed since the and Dynasties. It came into existence because of the climatic conditions around the city of Luoyang - notably the dry climate, mountainous terrain, and lack of fruits - which makes a "soupy" meal an attractive option.

Shui Xi is famous for its soups, thus called "Water Banquet". There are vegetables and meat dishes, cold and warm, and all kinds of flavors. There're totally 24 dishes. First, 8 cold dishes are served as companies for drinks. The rest 16 are warm dishes, served in different sized under-glazed blue bowls. Four of them are "end dishes", served in the end. The rest 12 are divided into 4 groups, and each group contains 3 dishes, with similar flavors. There is a "big dish" in each group, accompanied by two "small dishes" as side dishes. It is called "going to empire court with sons" . The next group of three dishes will be served only when the previous group has been finished, simulating the stream-like processing. The first dish is made of shredded turnip, which mimics swallow's nest flavor, thus called "swallow dish". The fourth dish shall be sweet vegetables or sweet soup. At last four "end dishes" are served. All of them are soupy dishes. The last end dish shall be sour vegetables egg soup, called "farewell dish", indicating all dishes have been served.

These days, it is found that in Tang Dynasty, Yuan Tiangang foresaw Wu Zetian would beome emperor, but he had to keep it secret. Thus, he invented these 24 dishes, imitating the whole life of Wu Zetian. It was initially named "Wu Empress Banquet". The name changed to "Luoyang Banquet" since Song Dynasty. Ordinary people called it "officialdom" . As tourism boomed, people call it "Luoyang Water Banquet".

Legend of Swallow Dish

The most notable first dish in "Luoyang Water Banquet" is "Luoyang Swallow Dish". It is said that when Wu Zetian was in Luoyang, a giant turnip weighing tens of kilograms grew in the field in Dongguan. Farmers thought it was a miracle, and dedicated it to the Empress. Wu, tired of sumptuous feast, was curious about what dishes could be made of turnip. The imperial cooks studies it and decided to steam the shredded turnip mixed with starch, then blend it with delicious soup. The Empress was very impressed by the swallow nest-like flavor, and complimented it a lot, and named it "Swallow Dish". Later, it was learned by masses, and gradually became "Luoyang swallow dish". In October 1973, Chinese Premier, Zhou Enlai accompanied Canadian Premier to visit Luoyang. Renowned cooks Wang Changsheng and Li Daxiong carefully made Luoyang swallow dish. The two premiers ordered it twice and complimented it a lot. Because there was a carved peony in the dish, Premier Zhou humorously said, "Peony in Luoyang is best in the world. It even grows in the dish. The dish may be called 'Peony Swallow Dish'." Ever since, the dish was renamed "peony swallow dish" and enjoyed a high reputation both at home and abroad.

Sha cha beef

Sha cha beef is the name of a dish featuring shacha sauce and tenderized beef strips. The Americanized dish is usually served over a bed of white rice with fresh scallions and cilantro . This is the native dish to the Gansu province of China. This dish is rare in that it is one of few - dishes to maintain the principle of ''fan-ts'ai''. The basis of this principle is the division between ''fan'', grains and other starch foods, and ''ts'ai'', vegetable and meat dishes. To prepare a balanced meal, it must have an appropriate amount of both ''fan'' and ''ts'ai'', and ingredients are readied along both tracks. Sha cha beef is not only a superb example of ''fan-ts'ai'', but a traditional dish dating back thousands of generations.

''Schabeefsteak'' is the commonly used term in the kitchens of asian restaurants in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. This is the colloquial form of the word. Also used as an expression of agreement or as a greeting.

Rou jia mo

Rou jia mo , hot pork sandwich, is a snack widely consumed in China, especially in the province of . It consists of finely chopped oily pork stuffed in toasted wheat flour flatbread. Good quality bread is called ''you zhi''.

''Rou jia mo'' costs less than 10 in any part of China and is considered an alternative to the Western hamburger. It can be found in many street hawker stalls, especially those selling soups or ''jiaozi''.


Qingtuan is a traditional . This food, which looks like a round mass of huge green stone, is actually made of rice, black bean paste and a special plant called ''maiqing'' , which is essentially barnyard grass. The exact technique in making qingtuan is quite complicated. Because of the rarity of the barnyard grass, this food is eaten only around the Qingming Festival, which happens to be on or around April 5 of each year in Gregorian Calendar.