When restaurants were established in the 19th century, food became a staple of the pansiterias, with the food given names. The "comida China" includes arroz caldo , and morisqueta tostada . When the Spaniards came, the food influences they brought were from both Spain and Mexico, as it was through the vice-royalty of Mexico that the Philippines were governed.
Filipino foods also find their influence/origins in , , , , , and cuisines. Culinary procedures from China, Spain, Mexico and United States integrated into cuisine practices as well.
From Doreen Fernandez, ''Palayok:''
In the Philippines, trade with China started in the 11th century, as documents show, but it is conjectured that undocumented trade may have started even two centuries earlier. Trade pottery excavated in Laguna, for example, includes pieces dating to the Tang Dynasty . The Chinese trader supplied the silks sent to Mexico and Spain in the galleon trade. In return they took back products of field, forest - beeswax, rattan - and sea, such as beche de mer. While they waited for goods and for payment, they lived here, and sometimes settled and took Filipino wives, a development that resulted in many Filipinos having Chinese origins, bloodlines and the culture now called "Chinoy" . It was a development that resulted in major Chinese inputs into Philippine cuisine.
Evidence of Chinese influence in Philippine food is easy to find, since the names are an obvious clue. ''Pansit'', the dish of noodles flavored with seafood and/or meat and/or vegetables, for example, comes from the Hokkien pian + e + sit meaning something that is conveniently cooked: usually fried," however, pansit now names only noodle dishes, and not only stir fried or sauteed, but shaken in hot water and flavored with a sauce , served with broth even a pasta form that is not noodle shaped, but is of the same flour-water formuation, such as ''pansit molo'' .
One can conjecture without fear that the early Chinese traders, wishing for the food of their homelands, made noodles in their temporary Philippine homes. Since they had to use the ingredients locally available, a sea change occurred in their dishes. If they took Filipino wives, as they often did, and these learned or ventured to cook the noodles for them, then their Filipino tastebuds came into play as well, transforming the local ingredients into a variant dish into an adapted, indigenized Filipino pansit.
Further adaptation and indigenization would occur in the different towns and regions. Thus Malabon, Rizal, a fishing village, has developed ''pansit Malabon'', which features oyster, shrimp and squid. While in Lucban, Quezon which is deeply inland and nowhere near the sea has ''pansit habhab'', which flavored only with a little meat and vegetables, and is so called because it is market food eat off the leaf .
The same thing has happened to lumpia, the Chinese eggroll which now has been incorporated into Philippine cuisine, even when it was still called ''lumpia Shanghai'' . Serving meat and/or vegetable in an edible wrapper is a Chinese technique now to be found in all of Southeast Asia in variations peculiar to each culture. The Filipino version has meat, fish, vegetables, heart of palm and combinations thereof, served fresh or fried or even bare.
The Chinese influence goes deep into Philippine cooking, and way beyond food names and restaurant fare. The use of soy sauce and other soybean products is Chinese, as is the use of such vegetables as ''petsay'', ''toge'' , pickled mustard greens . Many cooking implements still bear their Chinese name, like sianse or turner. The Filipino ''carajay'', spelled the Spanish way is actually a Chinese wok.
Cooking process, also derive from Chinese methods. ''Pesa'' is Hokkien for "plain boiled" and it is used only in reference to the cooking of fish, the complete term being peq+sa+hi, the last morpheme meaning fish. In Tagalog it can mean both fish and chicken .
Since most of the early Chinese traders and settlers in the country were from Fukien, it is Hokkien food that is most widespread in influence. Since, however, restaurant food is often Cantonese, most of the numerous Chinese restaurant in the country serve both types. Other style of Chinese cuisine are available though in the minority.
Living and traveling
Filipinos traveled to Europe in 1890, to attend the Paris Exposition, and in 1899 there lived "a group of respectable Filipinos composed in the majority of those who emigrated from the Philippines to escape the persecutions brought about by the revolution against Spain in 1896."
Chefs and cookbooks
*Martin Tinio, Jr., spoke of recipes that he or his family prepared for holidays and other special occasions, and which his parents or he himself had first encountered in France.
*Each recipe, by Mariano A. Henson of Pampanga, "gives exact measurements, the price for each condiment, the total price for each dish, and the date when he tested it. Among the French recipes he obviously cooked and served his family are: Salmon au Gratin, Chuletas a la Papillote, Bouillavaise [sic] de Marsella, Oysters a la D'Uxelles, Mechadong solomillio a la Francesa, Fish au Beurre, and Glorified Fondue" in one of his 30 cookbooks: ''Cusinang Capampangan, patina ding linutu nang ibat caring Americano, Castila, Frances, Intsic, Italiano, Polaco, Turco at aliwa pa, nahun qng paglasa nang sarili''; Pampango, .
Evidence of the French-influenced lifestyle can be seen in a magnificent set of S鋦res tableware. All plates and glasses were monogrammed, complete with large platters for pi鋃es mont嶪s and carafes for wine, gift of the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia -- and a set before that.
Examples of dishes, pastries, and others
* ''Maki'' - pork, beef or fish in a thick cornstarch-based soup.
* ''Kiampong'' - a variant of fried rice.
* ''Comida China'' - nowadays a Table d'hote of Chinese dishes offered in some Chinese restaurants.
* ''Ma-Chang'' - a variant of Lo mai gai shaped in a triangular pattern.